sources

well-known and indie creators

“Let’s Talk About Western Visual Novel Publishers 2017 : Visualnovels.” Accessed July 19, 2019. https://www.reddit.com/r/visualnovels/comments/5uxxd5/lets_talk_about_western_visual_novel_publishers/.

Plk_lesiak. “EVN Chronicles: The Comprehensive List of Visual Novel-Related Steam Developer and Publisher Homepages.” EVN Chronicles (blog), July 1, 2018. https://evnchronicles.blogspot.com/2018/07/the-comprehensive-list-of-vn-related.html.

“Top Visual Novel Games – Itch.Io.” Accessed July 19, 2019. https://itch.io/games/genre-visual-novel.

“Visual Novel Developers Group – Indie DB.” Accessed July 19, 2019. https://www.indiedb.com/groups/visual-novel-developers.

visual novels, literature, video games, popular genres

Abid, Nuhan B. (2018, May 24). “Interactive Gaming – A Case for Visual Novels.” The Daily Star. https://www.thedailystar.net/shout/overclock/interactive-gaming-case-visual-novels-1580530.

Ambalina, Limarc. (2019, April 10). “Japanese Visual Novels: What They Are, Plus 5 Reading Recommendations.” GaijinPot Blog (blog). https://blog.gaijinpot.com/japanese-visual-novels-what-they-are-and-5-recommendations/.

Bogost, Ian. “Video Games Are Better Without Stories.” The Atlantic, April 25, 2017. https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/04/video-games-stories/524148/.

Cova, Florian, and Amanda Garcia. “The Puzzle of Multiple Endings.” Journal of Aesthetics & Art Criticism 73, no. 2 (Spring 2015): 105–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/jaac.12163.

Galbraith, Patrick W. “Bishōjo Games: ‘Techno-Intimacy’ and the Virtually Human in Japan.” Game Studies 11, no. 2 (May 2011). http://gamestudies.org/1102/articles/galbraith.

Green, Amy M. Storytelling in Video Games: The Art of the Digital Narrative. Edited by Matthew Wilhelm Kapell. McFarland, 2017.

Hayes, Spencer. (2017, June 13). “In Defense of Visual Novels.” itch.io. https://itch.io/blog/2624/in-defense-of-visual-novels.

Iverson, Tomas. “The ‘Active Novel’: An Investigation of the Creative Interface between the Graphic Novel and the Video Game.” The Computer Games Journal 1, no. 2 (November 1, 2012): 39–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395966.

Jagoda, Patrick. “Digital Games and Electronic Literature: Toward an Intersectional Analysis.” June 2013. http://conference.eliterature.org/critical-writing/digital-games-and-electronic-literature-toward-intersectional-analysis

Jones, Simon K. “Comparing Storytelling in Games & Literature.” Medium, December 20, 2018. https://medium.com/@Tarnimus/comparing-storytelling-in-games-literature-4e5ff6ca5a73.

Knowlton, Thomas. “Storytelling Through Games.” School Library Journal 65, no. 3 (April 2019): 20–21.

Pratama, Dendi, Winny Gunarti Widya Wardani, and Taufiq Akbar. “The Visual Elements Strength in Visual Novel Game Development as the Main Appeal.” Mudra Jurnal Seni Budaya 33, no. 3 (September 27, 2018): 326–33. https://doi.org/10.31091/mudra.v33i3.455.

Tyminska, Marta. (2014, September 29). “VISUAL NOVEL – FROM LITERATURE TO GAMING.” https://www.academia.edu/8605973/VISUAL_NOVEL_FROM_LITERATURE_TO_GAMING.

“Visual Novel.” TV Tropes. Accessed June 6, 2019. https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/VisualNovel?from=Main.VisualNovels.

Weissman, Melanie. (2015, March 26). “Get Your Head in the Game: The Medium of Visual Novels – Digital Humanities at Geneseo.” https://dh.sunygeneseoenglish.org/2015/03/26/get-your-head-in-the-game-the-medium-of-visual-novels/.

past, present and future

“3D ‘Visual Novel’ Explores Life in a Future City-State circa 2039 – Fantasy/SciFi Video – – The Passive Voice.” https://www.thepassivevoice.com/3d-visual-novel-explores-life-in-a-future-city-state-circa-2039/.

Crawford, R., and Y. Chen. “From Hypertext to Hyperdimension Neptunia: The Future of VR Visual Novels: The Potentials of New Technologies for Branching-Path Narrative Games.” In 2017 23rd International Conference on Virtual System Multimedia (VSMM), 1–7, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/VSMM.2017.8346298.

Crimmins, Brian. “A Brief History of Visual Novels.” Medium, January 7, 2016. https://medium.com/mammon-machine-zeal/a-brief-history-of-visual-novels-641a2e6b1acb.

“Explore the Future of Virtual Reality in Visual Novel Sumire.” Gaming News, Reviews, and Articles – TechRaptor.Net (blog), May 22, 2018. https://techraptor.net/content/sekai-project-publishing-sumire.

Hayes, Spencer. (2018, August 16) “Visual Novels Are Having a Moment.” itch.io. https://itch.io/blog/44955/visual-novels-are-having-a-moment.

Healy, Mark. (2017, January 26). “How the Rise of Narrative Design is Revolutionizing the Craft of Video Game Storytelling.” https://www.ceros.com/originals/narrative-design-video-game/.

Helia. “Visual Novel Are Dead, Long Live Visual Novel!” Träumendes Mädchen Devblog (blog), August 20, 2018. http://traumendes-madchen.com/blog/?p=1699.

Wallace, Kimberley. (2014, January 31). “The Emerging Visual Novel Trend: What Does The Future Hold?” Game Informer. https://www.gameinformer.com/b/features/archive/2014/01/31/the-emerging-visual-novel-trend-what-does-the-future-hold.aspx.

Zoggel, Guan van. (2011, November 11). “Serious ‘Techno-Intimacy’: Perceiving Japanese Dating Simulation Video Games as Serious Games.” https://www.academia.edu/1120303/Serious_techno-intimacy_Perceiving_Japanese_dating_simulation_video_games_as_serious_games.

Japan, everywhere else, anime

Chan, Lizzy. (2018, May 23) “Valve’s Ultimatum on Adult Content Jeopardizes Visual Novels in the West.” OTAQUEST (blog). http://otaquest.com/steam-visual-novel-issue.

“Contrasting the Japanese and Western VN Fandoms – Lemma Soft Forums.” May 8, 2018 https://lemmasoft.renai.us/forums/viewtopic.php?t=50023.

Isshan. (2011, February 17). “Visual Novels: A Cultural Difference Between The East And West.” Siliconera (blog). https://www.siliconera.com/2011/02/17/visual-novels-a-cultural-difference-between-the-east-and-west/.

Ohlew, Tyler. (2014, September 6). “Text Adventures: The Story of Visual Novels in America.” USgamer (blog). https://www.usgamer.net/articles/visual-novels-in-america.

Pelletier-Gagnon, Jérémie. (2011, June). “Video Games and Japaneseness: An Analysis of Localization and Circulation of Japanese Video Games in North America.”

Valens, Ana. (2016, May 20). “The Rise of the Western Visual Novel.” Den of Geek. https://www.denofgeek.com/us/go/255200.

Anime list:

  • Ace Attorney. A-1 Pictures (season 1), CloverWorks (season 2), 2016-.
  • Chaos;Head. Madhouse, 2008.
  • Clannad, Kyoto Animation, 2007.
  • Corpse Party, Asread, 2013.
  • Danganronpa: The Animation, Lerche, 2013-.
  • Fate/Stay Night, Studio Deen, 2006-.
  • Higurashi: When They Cry, Studio Deen, 2006.
  • Kanon, Toei Animation, 2002.
  • Little Busters! J.C. Staff, 2013.
  • School Days, TNK, 2007.
  • Steins;Gate, White Fox, 2011.
  • The Fruit of Grisaia, Eight Bit, 2014.

Presence in other games, forums, creating your own

Cross, Katherine. “Don’t like Visual Novels? These Games Might Change Your Mind.” The Verge, September 25, 2018. https://www.theverge.com/2018/9/25/17879736/visual-novel-new-games-genre-neo-cab-solace-state-admiralo-island-witches-club-necrobarista.

GameMaker Studio – https://www.yoyogames.com/gamemaker

Ghost Trick: Phantom Detective gameplay video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=780&v=YOSiyUIorPQ

itch.io – https://itch.io/games/genre-visual-novel

KiriKiri – http://kirikirikag.sourceforge.net/contents/index.html

Lemma Soft Forums – https://lemmasoft.renai.us/forums/

NScripter – http://nscripter.insani.org/

Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney gameplay video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nWt1IJyUqog

Ren’Py – https://www.renpy.org/

RPG Maker – http://www.rpgmakerweb.com/

Tyrano Builder – https://tyranobuilder.com/

Unity – https://unity.com/

Visual Novel Maker – http://visualnovelmaker.com/

visual novel subreddit – https://www.reddit.com/r/visualnovels/

All screenshots of gameplay were taken by Emmarie Toppan.

Tools used:
WordPress (website)
Timeline JS (interactive timeline)

Games/franchises referenced on this site, in alphabetical order:

  • Analogue: A Hate Story, Christine Love, 2012.
  • Angelique, Koei & Koei Tecmo, 1994.
  • Call of Duty, Activision, 2003-
  • Catherine, Atlus, 2011
  • Chaos;Head, Mages Inc., 2008.
  • Clannad, Key, 2004.
  • Corpse Party, Team GrisGris, 1996.
  • Danganronpa, Spike Chunsoft, 2010-2017.
  • Devil May Cry, Capcom, 2001-.
  • Doki Doki Literature Club, Team Salvato, 2017.
  • Fallout, Interplay Entertainment, Bethesda, Softworks 1997-2018.
  • Fate/Stay Night, Type-Moon, 2004.
  • Ghost Trick: Phantom Detective, Capcom, 2010.
  • Grand Theft Auto, Rockstar Games, Capcom, 1997-2013.
  • Higurashi: When They Cry, Yen Press, 2007.
  • Kanon, Key, 1999.
  • Katawa Shoujo, Four Leaf Studios, 2012.
  • Life is Strange, Dontnod Entertainment, 2015.
  • Little Busters!, Key, 2007.
  • Lolita: Yakyuken, PSK, 1982.
  • Mystic Messenger, Cheritz, 2016.
  • Muv-Luv, âge, Mages Inc., 2003-2016.
  • Neo Cab, Chance Agency, 2019.
  • Persona 4 Golden, Atlus, 2012.
  • Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney, Capcom, 2001.
  • Resident Evil, Nintendo, Capcom, 1996-.
  • Sakura Wars, Sega, 1996.
  • School Days, 0verflow, 2005.
  • Snatcher, Konami, 1988.
  • Steins;Gate, Mages Inc., 2009.
  • Suiosho no Ryuu, Squaresoft, 1986.
  • The Fruit of Grisaia, Frontwing, 2015.
  • The Last of Us, Naughty Dog, Sony, 2013.
  • The Portopia Serial Murder Case, Enix, Spike Chunsoft, 1983.
  • To Heart, Leaf, 1997.
  • Tokimeki Memorial, Konami, 1994-2018.
  • Tokyo Chronos, MyDearest Inc., 2019.
  • VA-11 HALL-A, Sukeban Games, 2016.
  • Valkyria Chronicles, Sega, 2008-2018.
  • Virtual Novel, VNDev, in development.
  • Zero Escape: Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors, Spike Chunsoft, 2009.

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